Grammar Notes
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Grammar Notes 1

 

Be - Present Tense

Singular

Plural

 

Iam

Weare

Youare

Youare

Heis

Sheis

Itis

Theyare

Be - Present Tense Negative

Subject + (be) + not

Singular

Plural

 

Iamnot

Wearenot

Youarenot

Youarenot

Heisnot

Sheisnot

Itisnot

Theyarenot

 

Be - Present Tense

Questions

(Be) + Subject + ____?

Singular

Plural

 

AmI....

Arewe...

Areyou...

Areyou....

Ishe....

Isshe...

Isit.....

Arethey..

 

Pronouns

Pronounsrepresent nouns:I, you, he, she, it, we, andtheyare....

Subject Pronouns

Singular

Plural

I

We

You

You

He

They

She

It

 

 

 

here are also....

Object Pronouns

Singular

Plural

me

us

you

you

him

them

her

It

 

this / that / these / those 

This

A thing or a person is close

This = singular

That

A thing or a person is far

That = singular

These

Things or people are close

These = plural

Those

Things or people are far

Those = plural

 

The Present Tense describes the things you do every day. Note the use of an "s" at the end of the verb when describing a man, a woman, or a thing.

Do not confuse the present tense with the simple form.

 

 

The Present Tense

Singular

Plural

 

Ilearn

Welearn

Youlearn

Youlearn

Helearns

Shelearns

Itlearns

Theylearn

 

Present Tense - Negative

do + not + verb

Singular

Plural

I do not work

We do not work

You do not work

You do not work

He does not work

They do not work

She does not work

It does not work

 

Contractions:

do + not = don't

does + not = doesn't

Singular

Plural

I don't work

We don't work

You don't work

You don't work

He doesn't work

They don't work

She doesn't work

It doesn't work

 

The Present Continuous Tense

The Present Continuous Tense usually describes things that are happening now.

S + (be) + _____ing

Singular

Plural

 

Iamlearning

Wearelearning

Youarelearning

Youarelearning

Heislearning

Sheislearning

Itislearning

Theyarelearning

Questions in the Present Continuous Tense

(Be) + S + _____ing

Singular

Plural

Am I learning?

Are we learning?

Are you learning?

Are you learning?

Is he learning?

Is she learning?

Is it learning?

Are they learning?

 

 

 

Have

S + has/have

Singular

Plural

 

Ihave

Wehave

Youhave

Youhave

Hehas

Shehas

Ithas

Theyhave

Have is usually used for ownership and description, but it's also a very popular substitute for eat and drink.

I have a new car.

I have time to go to the movies.

She has cereal and coffee for breakfast every morning.

Have is also an important helping verb: I have lived in Minnesota for three years. In this example, (have) + (past participle) makes the present perfect tense.

ote: To make "have" negative in the present tense, usedon'tordoesn't+ have.

Correct: He doesn't have any money. / I don't have any money.

Incorrect: He hasn't any money.(but okay in British English)

Have - Present Tense (negative with contraction)

I don't have....

We don't have...

You don't have...

You don't have...

He doesn't have...

They don't have...

She doesn't have...

It doesn't have...

 

Articles

A / An / The

Singular

Plural

 

a / an

the

the

---

 Articles are used in front of Nouns.

"A" or "An" are always singular.

"The" is singular or plural.

Some plural nouns don't use an article.

When using articles, it's important to also know the difference between count and noncount nouns.

here are a lot of rules for articles:

1. Don't put an article in front of the name of a place.

Correct: Minneapolis is a great city.

Not correct: The Minneapolis is a great city.

But it's correct to use the name of a place as an adjective:

The Minneapolis skyline is beautiful at night.

2. Indefinite amounts or general qualities don't take an article.

Pennies are made of copper.

The copper in this penny is turning brown. (this is a specific amount)

Water is good for you.

The water in this glass tastes bad. (this is a specific amount)

3. Don't use an article with possessive nouns or pronouns.

This is the Paul's website.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Prepositions

Prepositions show location, proximity, and relationships:

There are hundreds of different prepositions and prepositional phrases. To learn them all will take years of practice. The best way to learn them well is by reading books, magazines, and newspapers. Listening to the radio helps as well. You can also learn about prepositions in class from a teacher, but it's important to realize that it requires a lot of practice and memorization. Some common prepostions are listed below in alphabetical order. I'll add more as I think of them.

 

 

 

The Past Tense

There are two types of past tense verbs:

regular verbs: add "ed" to the simple form

irregular verbs: don't add "ed"

Regular Verbs

Irregular Verbs

 

simple

past

simple

past

 

work

worked

be

was/were

 

live

lived

get

got

 

move

moved

go

went

 

walk

walked

put

put

 

open

opened

eat

ate

 

wait

waited

have

had

 

As you can see, regular verbs addedto make the past tense (work / worked) and irregular verbs change their form entirely (go / went). The most important verb to learn first in the past tense is "be."

Be - Past Tense

Singular

Plural

I was

We were

You were

You were

He was

They were

She was

It was

To make thenegative, use "did" + "not" (didn't) + the main verb in the simple form:

Singular

Plural

I did not learn

We did not learn

You did not learn

You did not learn

He did not learn

They did not learn

 

Irregular Verb: Have

Subject + ________

(irregular verbs take many different forms in the past tense)

Singular

Plural

I had

We had

You had

You had

He had

They had

She had

It had

 

Irregular verbs must be memorized because they change their form completely.Click herefor a list of commonly used irregular verbs, print it out, and commit them to memory.

 

 

Review:

The Past Tense describes the things you didyesterday, last year, back in February, in 1973, oran hour ago.

Regular verbs, such as learn, take an "ed" ending after the subject.

work---worked,learn---learned,visit---visited

Irregular verbs change their form entirely or not at all.

eat---ate,go---went,be---was/were,hit---hit,cut---cut

The form of the past tense is not dependent on the subject. See the example below:

Question Words...

...used for this information.

Who

a person

What

a thing / fact

Where

a location / place

When

time / day / year / month

Why

reason

How

method / quality

 

Questions using question words follow two basic patterns:

Question Word + Verb + Subject

QW + V + S

Who is he?

...or

Question Word + Verb + Subject + Verb

QW + V + S + V

Where do they live?

Subject

Possessive Adjective

Possessive Pronoun

I

my

mine

you

your

yours

he

his

his

she

her

hers

it

its

its

we

our

ours

you

your

yours

they

their

theirs

 

Apossessive adjectiveis used before a noun.

Apossessive pronounisnotused before a noun.

Be - Past Tense

The verb "be" has two forms in the past tense:wasandwere

 

Singular

Plural

I was

We were

You were

You were

He was

They were

She was

It was

 

 

To make a question....

Singular

Plural

Was I ...

Were we ...

Were you ...

Were you ...

Was he ...

Were they ...

Was she ...

Was it ...

To make the negative add "not"

He was not in school yesterday. / He wasn't in school yesterday.

was not = wasn't / were not = weren't

Important vocabulary

  • o'clock = :00 ( 7:00 = seven o'clock )
  • a quarter after = 15 minutes after the hour ( 3:15 = It's a quarter after three.)
  • a quarter past = 15 minutes after the hour (3:15 = It's a quarter past three.)
  • a quarter before = 15 minutes before the hour( 3:45 = It's a quarter before four )
  • a quarter to = 15 minutes before the hour (3:45 = It's a quarter to four.)
  • half past = 30 minutes after the hour ( 11:30 = It's half pasteleven)
  • thirty = 30 minutes after the hour. (11:30 = It's eleven thirty.)
  • The easiest way to tell someone the time is to use a digital format. For example, when someone asks you what time it is, you can say, "It's 5:30." Instead of, "It's half past five."
  • "It's 5:13." = (five thirteen) or
  • "It's 5:02." (five o two)*
  • ·or "It's 5:50." (five fifty)
  • *Note: 0 is pronounced"O"not "zero."

     

     

    Giving the Date

    Question:

    Answers:

    What's today? or

    What day is it today?

    Today's Tuesday, June 6. (June sixth)

    What's the date?

    It's June 6.orIt's the 6th of June.

     

     There's a difference between "day" and "date"

  • day: Sunday, Monday, Tuesday, etc.
  • date: June 6

 

 When someone asks you the date, it's not necessary to give the year. For example:

  • What's the date? ----> It's June 6.  (Not It's June 6, 2005)

 

Make sure you use ordinal numbers when you say the date. You can listen to the way I say the date every day on my blog. When someone asks about time in the future or the past, use the year.

  • When were you born? ----> March 25, 1965

 

When did you arrive in the U.S.? ----> In 2002.

  • When is the next election? ----> In November of 2010.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Count and Noncount Nouns

    Count nounsuse singular andpluralverbs andpronouns:

    noncount nounsuse only singular verbs andpronouns:

    Thereisan apple. (singular)

    Therearesome apples. (plural)

    Thereissome fruit. (singular verb)

    I likethatchair. ("that" is singular).

    She likesthosechairs. ("those" is plural)

    I likethatfurniture.

    I like those furniture.(no!)

    A carisan expensive thing to own. Carsarean expensive form of transportation.

    Trafficwasheavy today. (singular verb)

    Applestastegood

    Fruittastesgood.

    Digital cameras make photography easy.Theyare fun to use.

    TV stationshavea lot of video equipment.Itis expensive.

    The camera is very nice.

    The equipment are nice. (no!)

 

 

    • Asking questions for an amount or a number:

    Count Nouns

    Noncount Nouns

    How manychairs are there?

    How manychairs are there?

    How muchfurniture is there?

    Only count nouns can take a number:

    There is one camera. There are four cameras.

    Noncount nouns don't use numbers:

    There is some equipment. There is a lot of equipment.

    Knowing the difference between count and noncount nouns will make your English sound much better. Below are words and phrases that can be used with count and noncount nouns. As you continue through the next levels, you will probably need to come back to this page.

    count nouns

    noncount nouns

    a(singular)

    -- (no article)

    the(singular and plural)

    the

    some

    some

    a lot of

    a lot of

    many(large numbers)

    much(large numbers)

    a few(3 to 4)

    a little(small number)

    few(a very small number)

    little(a very small number)

    fewer(comparative)

    less(comparative)

    fewest(superlative)

    least(superlative)

    not many(a small number)

    not much(a small number)

    not any(zero)

    not any(zero)

     

    can / can't

    singular

    plural

    I can ______

    We can ______

    You can ______

    You can ______

    He can ______

    She can ______

    They can ______

    It can ______

     

    have to

    singular

    plural

    Ihave to_____

    Wehave to ____

    Youhave to____

    Youhave to ____

    Hehas to____

    Shehas to____

    Ithas to ____

    Theyhave to ____

     

    you have to go to school tomorrow.

    He has to do some work.

    They have to travel to New York.

     (These sentences are in the present tense.)

    "have to" = necessary, important

    After "have to" use the simple form of the verb.

     

    To make "have to" negative:

    do + not + have to + main verb

    Singular

    Plural

    I don't have to _____

    We don't have to ____

    You don't have to _____

    You don't have to ____

    He doesn't have to _____

    They don't have to _____

    She doesn't have to _____

    It doesn't have to _____

    We don't have to be there until 8:00.

    She doesn't have to do the dishes tonight.

    They don't have to clean their house.

     

     

    making questions with "have to"

    Present Tense

    singular

    plural

    Do Ihave to_____

    Do wehave to ____

    Do youhave to____

    Do youhave to ____

    Does hehaveto____

    Does shehaveto____

    Does ithave to ____

    Do theyhave to ____

     

    making questions with "have to"

    Present Tense

    singular

    plural

    Do Ihave to_____

    Do wehave to ____

    Do youhave to____

    Do youhave to ____

    Does hehaveto____

    Does shehaveto____

    Does ithave to ____

    Do theyhave to ____

     

    • A: What did you have to do yesterday?
    • B: I had to drive to the airport.
    • What did he have to do at school?
    • He had to take a test.

     

     want

    Present Tense

    singular

    plural

    I want_____

    We want_____

    You want_____

    You want_____

    He wants_____

    She wants_____

    It wants_____

    They want_____

    The verb "want" requires an object:

    • I want a banana. (The word "banana" is an object.)
    • She wants some coffee. (The word "coffee" is an object.)
    • They want some help. (The word "help" is an object.)

    Present Tense – negative

    singular

    plural

    I don't want_____

    We don't want_____

    You don't want_____

    You don't want_____

    He doesn't want_____

    She doesn't want_____

    It doesn't want_____

    They don't want_____

    Remember: You must have an object after the verb "want."

    • I don't want any mustard on my sandwich.
    • He doesn't want to go home. (The infinitive, "to go" is the object.)
    • We don't want them.

     

    The word "want" is often heard in questions:

    • What do you want?
    • Do you want anything to drink?
    • Does he want anything to drink?
    • Where do they want to go today?
    • When do you want to leave for the airport?

    want

    Past Tense

    singular

    plural

    I wanted_____

    We wanted_____

    You wanted_____

    You wanted_____

    He wanted_____

    She wanted_____

    It wanted_____

    They wanted_____

    The verb "want" requires an object:

    • I wanted some coffee. (The word "coffee" is an object.)
    • He wanted a new car. (The word "car" is an object.)
    • We wanted a vacation. (The word "vacation" is an object.)

     

     

     

    Past Tense - negative

    singular

    plural

    I didn't want_____

    We didn't want_____

    You didn't want_____

    You didn't want_____

    He didn't want_____

    She didn't want_____

    It didn't want_____

    They didn't want_____

    Remember: You must have an object after the verb "want."

    • You didn't want the job.
    • My dog didn't want to stay home. (The infinitive, "to stay" functions as the object in this sentece.)
    • The kids didn't want the brocolli.

     

    These questions are asked in the past tense:

    • What did you want?
    • Did they want any more juice?
    • Did your neighbor want any help?
    • When did he want to eat?
    • When did you want to leave for the airport? (This question and the one before it are in the past tense, but they refer to a future event.)

     

     

     

    would like

    singular

    plural

    I would like ____

    We would like_____

    You would like______

    You would like_____

    He would like_____

    She would like_____

    It would like_____

    They would like_____

    would like = want

    The verb "would like" requires an object, a gerund, or an infinitive after it:

    • I would like a bagel. (The word "bagel" is an object.)
    • He'd like a new job. (The word "job" is an object. Notice that the subject and "would" are contracted to form "He'd." This is very common.)
    • They'd like a new dog. (The word "dog" is an object.)
    • They'd like to get a new dog. ("To get" is an infinitive.)

    Most people make a contraction with the subject and "would."

    I would like a burrito = I'd like a burrito.

    She would like to make a call. = She'd like to make a call.

    Present Tense - negative

    singular

    plural

    I wouldn't like_____

    We wouldn't like ____

    You wouldn't like____

    You wouldn't like ____

    He wouldn't like ____

    She wouldn't like ____

    It wouldn't like ____

    They wouldn't like ____

    Remember: You must have an object after "would like."

    You can also use a gerund after "would like."

    • You wouldn't like living there. ("Living" is a gerund.)
    • He probably wouldn't like the food.
    • They wouldn't like doing that kind of work. ("Doing" is a gerund.)

    Note: Using "would like" in the negative is not always an easy thing to do. This expresses an opinion about a person that might not be true.

     QUESTIONS:

    These questions are made with "would like."

    would like = do want

    • What would you like on your pizza?
    • Would you like to go out tonight?
    • Would they like to go to the park?
    • What time would you like to leave?
    • How many pieces of chicken would you like?

     

    need

    Present Tense

    singular

    plural

    I need_______

    We need_____

    You need______

    You need_____

    He needs_____

    She needs_____

    It needs_____

    They need_____

    The verb "need" requires an object or an infinitive after it:

    • I need some coffee. (The word "coffee" is an object.)
    • She needs a ride. (The word "ride" is an object.)
    • We need to go home. ("To go" is an infinitive.)

     

    Present Tense - negative

    singular

    plural

    I don't need_____

    We don't need ____

    You don't need ____

    You don't need ____

    He doesn't need____

    She doesn't need ____

    It doesn't need ____

    They don't need ____

    Remember: You must have an object or an infinitive after "need."

    • They don't need a new car . (The word "car" is a noun that functions as an object in this sentence.)
    • She doesn't need to work tomorrow. ("To work" is an infinitive.)
    • This flashlight doesn't need batteries. (The word "need" is often used with things. It doesn't need batteries.)

     

    The verb "need" is often used in questions:

    • Is there something that you need?
    • What does he need to do today?
    • Do you need anything from the store?
    • Why do you need to work on Saturday?
    • Will I need to wear a jacket today? 

    need

    Past Tense

    singular

    plural

    I needed_______

    We needed_____

    You needed______

    You needed_____

    He needed_____

    She needed_____

    It needed_____

    They needed_____

    The verb "need" requires an object or an infinitive after it:

    • I needed a nap this afternoon. (The word "nap" is an object.)
    • You needed something to drink. (The word "something" is an object.)
    • The kids needed to eat. ("To eat " is an infinitive.)

    Present Tense - negative

    singular

    plural

    I didn't need_____

    We didn't need ____

    You didn't need ____

    You didn't need ____

    He didn't need____

    She didn't need ____

    It didn't need ____

    They didn't need ____

    Remember: You must have an object or an infinitive after "need."

    • The car didn't need any gas . (The word "gas" is a noun that functions as an object in this sentence.)
    • They didn't need to stay longer. ("To stay " is an infinitive.)
    • The plants didn't need any more water. (The word "need" is often used with things. They didn't need any more water.) 

    The verb "need" is often used in questions:

    • What did you need from the store?
    • Did you need to use my computer?
    • Did they need any money?
    • Why did he need to see a doctor?

     

     

     

     

    Source:  Learn American English Online:  http://www.learnamericanenglishonline.com/index.html